Until 1989, Romania was one of the countries of the communist bloc in Europe and its healthcare system was characterized by centralized planning and severe underfunding, with low performance and low quality healthcare. Since 1998, Romania replaced the Semashko model with a social health insurance system, highly centralized under the management of the Ministry of Health as the central administrative authority. After joining the European Union, quality of life increased in our country and there were efforts to improve the quality of healthcare, including pediatric and neonatal care. Still, Romania has the lowest share of health expenditure of gross domestic product among the European Union Member States and the lowest level of expenditure per inhabitant. The Romanian health system is organized on three levels of assistance: primary, secondary and tertiary assistance. This overview presents the organization and the characteristics of pediatric and neonatal healthcare in Romania at all levels, the infrastructure and the human resources, the educational system from medical school to pediatric residency, professional organizations, national health programs, and the child health status in Romania. Infant mortality, the most descriptive single indicator of the quality of a health system, decreased constantly for the last 30 years in Romania, but is still the highest in the European Union. Even though there were great improvements in the healthcare for children, more efforts should be made to assure a better quality of care for the future of our nation, both on the human resources (in great danger due to the brain-drain of medical professionals during the last 12 years), and on the infrastructure plan.