The article describes and discusses several key elements of the paediatric healthcare system in Israel, including paediatric training, family and community paediatrics, hospital-based paediatric services, preventive care services, and special programs such as the Drop of Milk (Tipat Halav) program.
Although child care in Israel has gained several notable achievements, such as a low infant mortality rate, there are several significant challenges for the coming years. These include training of enough paediatricians and periodic updating of training programs to fulfil needs and provide an adequate preventive care from fetal life through infancy, childhood, and adulthood. In addition, paediatricians in Israel should continue to be involved in national public health programs to reduce health inequities among mothers and children and reduce health disparities among certain geographic areas and various populations. Graduates of paediatric residency are expected to be able to address the new technologies, the requirements for personal medicine and on-line medicine, and to be able to deal with both pure "medical" issues, and public health, lifestyle, and environmental issues.