ISSN 1306-0015 | E-ISSN 1308-6278
Original Article
Frequency of Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacteria in primary immunodeficiencies
1 Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey  
2 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey  
Turk Pediatri Ars 2017; 52: 138-144
DOI: 10.5152/TurkPediatriArs.2017.5240
Key Words: Bacille Calmette-Guerin, interleukin 12, interferon gamma, mycobacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, primary immunodeficiency

Aim: Susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases is observed in some primary immunodeficiency diseases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate mycobacterial infections in primary immunodeficiency diseases.


Material and Methods: Patients under follow-up by Ege University Pediatric Immunology Department for severe combined and combined immunodeficiencies, interleukin 12/ interferon gamma receptor deficiency, nuclear factor kappa-beta essential modulator deficiency and chronic granulomatosis disease were evaluated retrospectively in terms of the frequency and characteristics of mycobacterial infections using a questionnaire form for demographic properties, clinical features and laboratory tests.


Results: A diagnosis of mycobacterial infection was made clinically in a total of 25 patients including five (11.3%) of 45 patients who had severe combined immune deficiency, 12 (52.3%) of 21 patients who had chronic granulomatous disease, four patients (100%) who had interferon gamma receptor 2 partical deficiency, two patients (100%) who had interleukin 12 receptor beta 1 deficiency and one patient (100%) who had nuclear factor kapa-beta essential modulator deficiency. Mycobacterium strain could be typed in 14 (33%) of these 25 patients including Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium chelonea, Mycobacterium elephantis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. All patients were treated with anti-tuberculosis therapy. Thirty-six percent of these 25 patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Eight patients (five before, three after transplantation) died.


Conclusions: Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria including mainly Mycobacterium bovis were observed with a higher rate compared to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in primary immunodeficiencies, especially in those affecting the interleukin 12/interferon gamma pathway. Early diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies with neonatal screening program and preventing administration of the Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine in these patients is important.


Cite this article as: Ulusoy E, Edeer Karaca N, Aksu G, Çavuşoğlu C, Kütükçüler N. Frequency of Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacteria in primary immunodeficiencies. Turk Pediatri Ars 2017; 52: 138-44.

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