ISSN: 1306 - 0015 • E-ISSN: 1308 - 6278

Instructions for Authors

Instructions for Authors

Turkish Archives of Pediatrics (Turk Pediatri Ars) is the international, periodical, open-access, scientific publication organ of Turkish Pediatrics Association. The journal is published four times a year in March, June, September, and December in accordance with principles of the independent, unbiased double-blind peer-review model and publishes a supplementary issue for Turkish Pediatrics Congress.

Its publication languages are both Turkish and English. Articles sent for assessment are accepted and published in Turkish or English; articles in Turkish are translated to English and loaded in the journal’s web site and in PubMed Central.
Turkish Archives of Pediatrics is indexed in PubMed Central, Web of Science-Emerging Sources Citation Index, TUBITAK ULAKBIM TR Index, EMBASE, SCOPUS, HINARI, EBSCO, CINAHL and GALE.

The journal’s expenses are met by the Turkish Pediatrics Association. Authors are not asked for a fee for article assessment and publication processes. The journal’s archive and the indexes it is included in are open to free access for researches and readers.


Open Access
Turkish Archives of Pediatrics is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

Commons User Licenses 
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0) .

Turkish Archives of Pediatrics aims to contribute to the international literature by publishing high-quality research papers, rare case reports, and letters to the editor in the field of pediatrics. Review articles can only be prepared by academics upon invitation. The journal’s target audience includes academics and expert physicians working in pediatrics and other relevant specialists.

The journal’s editorial and publishing processes are in accordance with the guidelines of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), Council of Science Editors (CSE), European Association of Science Editors (EASE), Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), and National Information Standards Organization (NISO). Turkish Archives of Pediatrics has adopted the ‘Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing’ (
The most important criteria for a manuscrpit to be accepted include originality, high scientific quality, and citation potential. Manuscripts submitted to the Turkish Archives of Pediatrics for evaluation should not be previously presented or published in any electronic or printed journal, book or any different medium. The editorial board should be informed of manuscripts that have been submitted to another journal for evaluation and rejected for publication. Submission of the previous peer review reports related to these manuscripts will accelerate the evaluation process. Manuscripts that have been presented at a meeting should be submitted with detailed information on the organization including the name, date, and location of the organization.

All manuscripts submitted to the Turkish Archives of Pediatrics go through a double-blind peer review process. For unbiased assessment, peer review of each manuscript is performed by at least two external, independent experts. Manuscripts submitted by the members of the journal’s editorial board will be assessed by external, independent experts who will be invited. The final decision of authorisation belongs to the editor-in-chief in the decision processes of all manuscripts.

Ethics committee reports prepared in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki “Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects,” (amended in October 2013, are required for clinical and experimental studies, drug and device research, and some case presentations. For such studies to be conducted in Turkey, permission should be obtained from the Ministry of Health in accordance with the Ministry of Health's Health Services Fundemental Law number 3359. An ethics committee report or an equivalent official letter should be scanned and uploaded in the system. In articles reporting the results of experimental studies conducted on humans, the quality of the methods applied to the individuals included in the study should be fully explained and an explanation that their consents were obtained should be included in the text. For studies conducted on animals, the precautions taken not to cause pain and discomfort in animals should be precisely stated in the article. Patients' consents, the name of the institution from which the ethics committee report was obtained, and the number and date of the approval document should be written under the title Material and Methods included in the main text file. In medical research conducted on humans, it should be stated that the research was conducted in accordance with the World Medical Association's Helsinki Declaration. It is the authors' responsibility to keep the confidentiality of the patients' identities. For pictures that could disclose the patients' identities, signed consents obtained from the patients or legal guardians should also be sent to the journal.

A similarity check for all articles is performed by way of the iThenticate software.

The editorial board will behave in accordance with the principles stated in the COPE guideline in case of plegiarism, citation deviation, and data manipulation claims and/or suspicions in relation to the studies sent to the journal.
Each individual listed as author should meet the authorship criteria recommended by ICMJE ( ICMJE recommends that authors should meet the following four criteria:

  1. Having contributed to a significant extent to the idea/design of the study or to data collection, examination and interpretation for the study; AND
  2. Having prepared the article design or having performed critical reviews of the ideational content; AND
  3. Having reviewed and approved the final form of the article before publication; AND
  4. Having accepted to be responsbile for all aspects of the study in order to make sure that the questions related to the validity and accuracy of any part of the study are examined and solved appropriately.
An author should be able to determine for which parts of the study the other authors are responsible, as well as taking the responsibility of the parts he/she has contributed. In addition, the authors should feel confidence in the integrity of each other's contributions.

Anybody who has been stated as an author should meet the four criteria of authorship and anybody who meets these four criteria should be defined as author. Individuals who do not meet all four criteria should be acknowledged in the title page of the article.
Responsible authors should sign the Authorship Contribution Form which can be accessed on during manuscript submission process and submit the scanned version of this form together with the article with the objective of behaving in accordance with authorship rights and preventing ghost authorship or honorary authorship. If "honorary authorship" is suspected in an article sent to the editorial board, the article in question will be refused without assessment. In the scope of manuscript submission, the responsible author should submit a brief cover letter stating that he/she accepts all responsibility related to authorship throughout submission and assessment processes.

Turkish Archives of Pediatrics requests and encourages the authors of submitted manuscripts and individuals who are in the process of assessing manuscripts to report their financial, institutional or other relations that could lead to potential conflict of interests or bias or their potential conflicts of interests.

Any financial grants or other support received for the study from individuals or institutions should be disclosed to the Editorial Board. The ICMJE Potential Conflict of Interest Disclosure Form should be completed separately by all contributing authors and submitted in order to disclose potential conflicts of interest. Potential conflicts of interest related to the editors, authors, and reviewers are solved by the Editorial Committee in accordance with the COPE and ICMJE guidelines.
The Editorial Board put objections and complaints into operation in accordance with the COPE guidelines. Authors may directly contact with Publication Secretaryship for their objections and complaints. If needed, an objective representative is assigned for issues which the Editorial Board can not solve within itself. In the decision processes related to objections and complaints, the final decision will be made by the Editor-in-chief.

Turkish Archives of Pediatrics requests that each manuscript be submitted together with the Copyright Agreement, which can be accessed on Authors should receive permission from the copyright owner when using contents published before, including pictures, tables or any other contents. The legal, financial, and criminal responsibility related to this issue belongs to the authors. The authors will accept that the manuscripts published in the Turkish Archives of Pediatrics will licensed in the scope of the creative Commons 4.0 International Citation Licence (CC-BY-NC) by signing the Copyright Agreement.

The opinions expressed in the manuscripts published in the journal reflect the author(s)' points of view and not the Turkish Archives of Pediatrics', Editor-in-chief’s, Editors', Editorial Board's or Publisher's. The Editor-in-chief, Editors, Editorial Board and Publisher do not accept any responsibility or liability related to these contents. The whole responsibility related to the content published belongs to the authors.

The manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with ICMJE-Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (updated in December 2015 - Authors are required to prepare manuscripts in accordance with the following guidelines: CONSORT guidelines for randomized research studies, STROBE guidelines for observational original research studies, STARD guidelines for studies on diagnostic accuracy, PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analysis, ARRIVE guidelines for experimental animal studies and TREND guidelines for non-randomized studies related to behavior and public health.
Manuscripts can only be submitted through the journal’s online manuscript submission and evaluation system, available at Manuscripts submitted via any other medium will not be evaluated.
The compliance of manuscripts sent to the journal's writing rules will be primarily checked by the journal's Editorial Board and the manuscripts that have not been prepared in accordance with the journal's writing rules will be sent back to their authors with technical correction requests. Manuscripts containing statistical analyses are evaluated by the Statistics Editor.

The authors should upload the Copyright Agreement, Authorship Contribution Form and ICMJE Potential Conflict of Interest form (this form should be filled in by all authors) to the online manuscript uploading system at the first submission. These forms are available at

Title page: A separate title page should also be sent together with all manuscripts. This page should include;

  1. The manuscript's Turkish and English titles and the short title not exceeding 50 characters,
  2. The authors' names, institutions, education degrees, e-mail addresses and ORCID ID numbers
  3. Financial support information and detailed information related to other support resources,
  4. The responsible author's name, address, phone number (including cellular phone), fax number and e-mail address,
  5. Information related to the individuals who have contributed to the manuscript's preparation process, but who do not meet the criteria of authorship.

What is already known/What this study adds: Each submission (Except for review papers and letters to the editor) should be accompanied  by a What is already known/What this study adds section consisting of max three sentences and 50 words for each. In the first section, authors should summarize the scientific knowledge of the subject in a clear and succinct way. In the following, they are expected to specify the contribution of their study to the same subject of the field. These points should be constructed in a way that provides the readers with a general overview of the subject and the study.

The “What is already known/What this study adds” section should be listed after key words.

Abstract: All mansucritps excluding Letter to the Editor and Expert Opinion should have Turkish and English abstracts. The abstracts of Original Articles should include the subtitles 'Objective', 'Material and Methods', 'Results' and 'Conclusions'. See Table 1 for word limitations.

Keywords: All manuscripts should be submitted with at least 3 and at most 10 keywords and the keywords should be written just below the abstract. Abbreviations should not be used as keywords. Keywords should be selected from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) database prepared by the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Types of Manuscripts
Manuscripts should be prepared using Microsoft Word software and should be structured in accordance with the rules below depending on their type.

Original Article: The main text should include the subtitles 'Introduction', 'Material and Methods', 'Results', and 'Discussion'. Please see Table 1 for limitations related to Original Article.
Statistical analysis is generally needed to support the conclusion. Statistical analysis should be performed in accordance with the statistical data reporting rules for medical journals (Altman DG, Gore SM, Gardner MJ, Pocock SJ. Statistical guidelines for contributors to medical journals. Br Med J 1983: 7; 1489-93). Information related to statistical analysis should be written as a separate subtitle in the ‘Material and Methods’ part and the sofware used should definitely be defined. For research articles, the calculation made while deciding the sample size should be specified. In comparison of continuous variables, the data should be reported together with their mean±standard deviation values when parametric tests are used. When non-parametric tests are used, the data should be expressed as median (minimum-maximum) or median (25th and 75th percentile) values. In advanced and complex statistical analyses, Relative Risk (RR), Odds Ratio (OR) and Hazard Ratio (HR) should be supported with Confidence Intervals and p values.
Units should be reported in accordance with the ‘International System of Units (SI)’.

Expert Opinion: Expert opinion aims at brief interpretation of an article published in the journal by a relevant expert or a reviewer who makes high-level evaluation. The authors are selected and invited by the journal. Please see Table 1 for limitations related to Expert Opinions. 

Review: Authors who have knowledge and experience in their area and have reflected this knowledge and experience in the number of publications and citations in the international literature are invited by the Editorial Board to write rewiew articles. Rewiew articles should be prepared such that they explain, discuss, and evaluate the final level reached for an information or topic for use in clinical practice, and direct future studies. The main text should be structured with “Introduction”, “Clinic and Research Effects”, and “Conclusion” subheadings. Please see Table 1 for limitations related to Review Articles.

Case Reports: The journal allocates a limited space for case reports in each issue. Only case reports that make an original contribution to the literature, that have an educative purpose or offer a new method for treating rare clinical diseases which are difficult to diagnose and treat, are considered for publication. The case, rather than general information, should be described in the abstract. The main text should be structured with “Introduction”, “Case” and “Discussion” subheadings. Written informed consent should be obtained from the patient(s) or their legal guardians and sent to our journal at the time of application. Please see Table 1 for limitations related to Case Reports.

Letter to the Editor: These types of manuscripts discuss the importance, an overlooked detail or a missing point of a previously published manuscript. In addition, letters to the editor can be prepared on a subject within the scope of the journal that may draw the readers’ attention, especially on educative cases. Readers can also submit their opinions on published material in “letter to the editor” format. An abstract, keywords, tables, figures or other visual aids are not required with this type of manuscripts. The main text should not contain subheadings. Proper citation of the study including the letter’s subject, the authors’ names, title, publication year, volume and page numbers, is required. These should be written in the reference list and references should be specified in the text.

Table 1. Limitations for manuscript types

Manuscript type Number of words Abstract number of words Number of references Number of tables Number of pictures/figures
Original research 3000 250
(Sub headings)
50 6 Total 15
Review 4000 250 50 6 Total 20
Case Report 1600 150 15 No table Total 10
Letter to the Editor 500 No abstract 5 No table No figure
Expert Opinon 1500 No abstract 15 1 1

Tables should be added to the main file, presented after the reference list, and designated in accordance with the order in the main text. A descriptive title should be present above the tables and explanations of the abbreviations included inside the tables should be included below the tables in alphabetical order. Letters should be used as superscripts in the table footnotes. The tables should be prepared in Microsoft Office Word files using the instruction “Add Table” and arrranged in an easily readable form. The data presented in tables should not be repetitions of the data presented in the main text. They should support the data in the main text. The abbreviations used in the tables should be specified below the tables in alphabetical order.

Pictures and Picture Subtitles
Pictures, graphs and photos (in the TIFF or JPEG format) should be uploaded into the system as separate files. The visual aids should not be presented in a Word file document or main document. When visual aids are divided into subunits, the subunits should not be presented in a single visual aid. Each subunit should be uploaded as a separate file in the system. The pictures should not be labeled to specify subunits (a, b, c etc.). Thick and thin arrows, arrowheads, asterisks, stars and similar symbols may be used to support the subtitles in the pictures. As in the rest of the manuscripts, information related to individuals and institutions should be concealed in pictures to provide double-blind evaluation. The resolution of the visual aids should be at least 300 DPI. All visual aids sent should have a clear resolution and large size (the minimum size 100x100 mm) to prevent troubles in the evaluation process. Picture subtitles should be located at the end of the main text.

Special rules
For double-blind peer review, the manuscript files and visual aids should not include information related to the individuals who conducted the study and the institution where the study was conducted.
In Turkish and English titles and short titles, the first letter of the sentence should be written as capital and all the other letters should be written as lower case. If there is a sentence after “:” in the title and text, the first letter should be capital and if there is no sentence, the first letter should be lower case. Words that are used very frequently can be abbreviated. However, abbreviations should not be used in the abstract. All abbreviations in the manuscript should be defined the first time they are used in the main text and should be written in brackets after the definition. Abbreviations should not be used at the begining of a sentence in the manuscript. They should be used in the sentences.

When, products including devices, softwares, medicines etc. are to be mentioned in the main text, product information including the product name, manufacturer, and information related to the city and country of production should be given in brackets; “Discovery St PET/CT scanner (General Electric, Milwaukee, WI, USA).” Drug names should be written as the names of the active ingredients. 

All references, tables, and figures should be enumerated in order in the appropriate places in the main text and references should be provided. Roman numerals should not be used in the table and figure titles and when mentioning these in the text.

For numbers with four or more digits, comma should be used between thousands (for example: 1,500). Double-digits should be written with numbers and one digit numbers should be shown in written in the text. However, digits should be written as numbers in expressions specifying values (For example: 1 cm). In the text and tables, percentage values should be written as two-digit numbers following point and p values should be written as three-digit numbers following point. Decimals in the text, tables and figures, should be separated with a comma in Turkish texts and with a point in English texts.

Limitations, obstacles, and deficiencies of original articles should be mentioned in the “Discussion” part before the “Conclusion” paragraph.

When providing references, the most recent and current publications should be preferred. DOI numbers of early on-line articles which are given as reference must be specified. Authors are responsible of the trueness of the references. Journal names should be abbreviated in accordance with the journal abbreviations contained in the Index Medicus/Medline/PubMed. When there are six or less authors, all author names should be listed. If there are 7 or more authors, the expression “ve ark.” should be added for Turkish references and the expression ‘et al.’ should be added for English references after the first 3 authors’ names are written. When the references are to be cited in the main text, the relevant reference should be enumarated in brackets according to the order of use. The types of showing references for different types of publications are shown below with examples:

Journal: Muller C, Buttner HJ, Peterson J, Roskomun H. A randomized comparison of clopidogrel and aspirin versus ticlopidine and aspirin after placement of coronary artery stents. Circulation 2000; 101: 590-3.
Book Section: Sherry S. Detection of thrombi. In: Strauss HE, Pitt B, James AE, editors. Cardiovascular Medicine. St Louis: Mosby; 1974.p.273-85.
Books with Single Author: Cohn PF. Silent myocardial ischemia and infarction. 3rd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1993.
Editor(s) as author: Norman IJ, Redfern SJ, editors. Mental health care for elderly people. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996.
Conference Proceedings: Bengisson S. Sothemin BG. Enforcement of data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun KC, Degoulet P, Piemme TE, Rienhoff O, editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sept 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North-Holland; 1992.p.1561-5..
Scientific or Technical Report: Smith P. Golladay K. Payment for durable medical equipment billed during skilled nursing facility stays. Final report. Dallas (TX) Dept. of Health and Human Services (US). Office of Evaluation and Inspections: 1994 Oct. Report No: HHSIGOE 169200860.

Thesis: Kaplan SI. Post-hospital home health care: the elderly access and utilization (dissertation). St. Louis (MO): Washington Univ. 1995.
Manuscripts accepted for publication, not published yet: Leshner AI. Molecular mechanisms of cocaine addiction. N Engl J Med In press 1997.
Epub ahead of print Articles: Aksu HU, Ertürk M, Gül M, Uslu N. Successful treatment of a patient with pulmonary embolism and biatrial thrombus. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 2012 Dec 26. doi: 10.5152/akd.2013.062. [Epub ahead of print]
Manuscripts published in electronic format: Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis (serial online) l995 Jan-Mar (cited 1996 June 5): 1(1): (24 screens). Available from: URL: http:/

Authors should mark the amendments they have made in the main text when sending the files of their corrected articles and include their notes related to the recommendations proposed by reviewers in the “Response to Reviewers” file. In the “Response to Reviewers” file, the author’s response should follow each reviewer’s comment and the numbers of the lines where amendments have been made should also be specified. Corrected articles should be sent to the journal in 30 days following the decision letter. If the corrected form of the article is not uploaded in the specified period, correction option may be canceled. If the authors need additional time for correction, they should deliver their requests for correction to the journal before the first 30 days end.
Manuscripts accepted for publication are checked in terms of grammar, punctuation, and format. PDF files of accepted articles that are ready for publication are delivered to the responsible authors and they are requested to deliver confirmation for publication to the journal in 2 days. Articles, for which the publication process has been completed, are published in early on-line format in the journal’s web site before they are published with the issue with which they are included in the publication plan.
The latest status of the submitted manuscripts and other information about the journal can be accessed at Furthermore, contact details of the Editorial Office and Publisher are provided below for correspondence with the journal in every respect.

Editor-in chief: Ayşe Güler Eroğlu
Address: İstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa, Cerrahpaşa Tıp Fakültesi, Çocuk Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Anabilim Dalı, İstanbul, Türkiye
Phone: +90 212 632 86 33
Fax: +90 212 632 86 33

Address:  Dumlupınar Mah. Yumurtacı Abdi Bey cad. Concord İstanbul, 1. Etap B Blok Da 162, Kadıköy, İstanbul, Türkiye
Phone: +90 216 550 61 11
Fax: +90 216 550 61 12

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